IAJS & Routledge | Analytical Psychology and the Human Sciences (Free E-Book)

Analytical Psychology and the Human Sciences was curated by Routledge Mental Health and the International Association for Jungian Studies as a companion to the 2021 IAJS Triannual Conference, sharing its theme of Analytical Psychology and the Human Sciences. The complementary e-book features six chapters by plenary and keynote speakers, which have been excerpted from Routledge books:

• Roger Brooke on “Archetypes” from Jung and Phenomenology
• Stanton Marlan on “Jung and Alchemy: A Daimonic Reading” from How And Why We Still Read Jung: Personal and Professional Reflections
• Fanny Brewster on “Archetypal Anger” from Archetypal Grief: Slavery’s Legacy of Intergenerational Child Loss
• Jon Mills on “Existentialism and the Unconscious Subject” from Underworlds: Philosophies of the Unconscious from Psychoanalysis to Metaphysics
• Lucy Huskinson on “Using Architecture to Think Ourselves into Being: Buildings as Storehouses of Unconscious Thought,” excerpted from Architecture and the Mimetic Self: A Psychoanalytic Study of how Buildings Make and Break our Lives
• Andrew Samuels on “Nations, Leaders and a Psychology of Difference” from The Political Psyche

To receive the e-book, you will be asked to provide your email address to Routledge, but have the option to opt out of marketing emails.

About the IAJS

Founded in 2002, the International Association for Jungian Studies exists to promote and develop Jungian and post-Jungian studies and scholarship on an international basis. The IAJS is a multidisciplinary association dedicated to the exploration and exchange of views about all aspects of the broader cultural legacy of Jung’s work and the history of analytical psychology. Through the development of Jungian and post-Jungian studies, the IAJS aims to aid the understanding of contemporary cultural trends and the history of psychological and cultural tendencies. Learn more on the IAJS website.

Vladislav Šolc | Three Ways of Why

“I no longer seek the cause of a neurosis in the past, but in the present. I ask, what is the necessary task which the patient will not accomplish?”

Jung, CW 4, par. 570

Precise questioning is conditio sine qua non of successful analysis. When asking questions, the analyst not only asks the client, but also poses questions to his or her own self. While communicating with the client, the analyst “looks” inside, and there, asks questions and “listens” for answers. The analyst not only actively searches in his memory, where he/she seeks understanding, but also observes feelings, images and ideas that passively arise from unconsciousness. The analyst’s psyche mirrors and at the same time complements missing links of the complex life situation of analysand and also his/hers own. The analyst not only helps the patient to find a new, “broader” meaning of his problem, but also enters the field in which both could undertake transformation.

The analysis is a creative team-work. In a way it is a maieutic, Socratic method of dialogue with the difference that the objective of analysis is to ask questions in such a way so they contribute to the revelation of a fuller life story, i.e. self-knowledge. The aim is not to achieve some kind of logical truth, but rather a new attitude; the greater degree of freedom that includes the acceptance of painful also-truths. The so-called behavioral therapies basically focus on the patient’s conscious intentions and analyze whether these intentions are in conflict with the demands of the given reality. In Jungian analysis there is a third variable that enters the healing process, and that is unconscious. The unconscious has its own intelligence: it can have its own will, its own intentions and secrets, or even an “opinions,” which could often be at odds with the opinions of the ego. It is the “Other” that we also dialogue with during the process of analysis.

Conscious and unconscious

Let’s ponder for a moment on the paradoxical relationship between conscious and unconscious. Conscious, just like the unconscious, has no “substance” that we can quantify, measure or localize per se. We can only know about it via our own conscious medium and thus through its own subject.  The very fact that the psyche can never be objectified – even though it can be perceived that way during the states of extended consciousness – by definition makes it an unconquerable mystery.

Vladislav (Vlado) Šolc (pronounced “Schultz”) is a professional psychotherapist and Jungian analyst practicing in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Vlado received training from the C. G. Jung Institute of Chicago and Charles University in Prague. He is the author of five depth-psychology-oriented books: Psyche, Matrix, Reality; The Father Archetype; In the Name of God—Fanaticism from the Perspective of Depth Psychology; Dark Religion: Fundamentalism from the Perspective of Jungian Psychology and most recently Democracy and Individuation in the Times of Conspiracy Theories. 

Links: Vlado Solc’s Website | Vlado Solc’s Lectures Available on the C. G. Jung Institute of Chicago Website

The Archetype of Sacrifice and the Regulation of Archetypal Energy with Robert Moore


This episode is the Saturday morning session of a weekend taught by Robert Moore called The Archetype of Sacrifice and the Regulation of Archetypal Energy. From the seminar description:

This workshop links Jung’s alchemical studies and his examination of the archetype of sacrifice to more recent research into the nature and dynamics of grandiose energies in the human psyche. In this program Robert Moore discusses how the decline of ritual containment of these energies in indigenous and traditional cultures has led to an epidemic of increased anxiety, addiction, and violent acting out.

First, Moore introduces the role of the archetype of sacrifice and related techniques of ritual practice in human strategies of coping with the pressures of archetypal energies. Second, he links the failure of these traditional means to our current epidemic of narcissistic acting out. Third, he summarizes the ways in which recent research supports Jung and Edinger on the necessity of the achievement of an ego-Self axis – a conscious and willed sacrificial attitude in the individuation process. Finally, Moore outlines the clinical implications: the ways in which we must be much more specific in our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the ego-Self axis in relation to the analytical task. He discusses the implications of this understanding of sacrifice for our conceptualization of a truly Jungian understanding of a psychoanalytic “cure” – the task of optimizing the analysand’s conscious regulation of archetypal energies. In short, Dr. Moore argues that Jungian Analysis should return to its roots in a manner which draws upon the best in recent interdisciplinary research to build upon Jung’s foundational discoveries.

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Journal of Analytical Psychology | Interview with Murray Stein (Video)

This interview with Murray Stein by Jan Weiner, published in the Journal of Analytical Psychology, is available for streaming on YouTube. This page includes a description of the interview and links to the YouTube videos. From the description:

The JAP has been interviewing senior and distinguished members of the Jungian community for a number of years now. We have in the past interviewed John Beebe, Fred Plaut and James Astor and we are soon to present an interview with Jean Knox; these interviews are available in printed form in the Journal, although the interviews with John Beebe and Fred Plaut were also filmed and are available on YouTube: John Beebe’s interview, discussing homophobia, his book Integrity in Depth, and The Red Book, is available in three parts (click on the highlighted parts of the text).

Here we are very pleased to make available a video of the interview of Murray Stein, conducted by Jan Wiener. The interview took place in Murray’s consulting room in Zurich in October 2018; the text of the interview is printed in the June 2019 edition of the Journal.

The video is in four parts:

In the first part, Murray talks with Jan Wiener about his early life with his family in Saskatchewan, Canada – his father was a pastor. He then discusses how he discovered Jung and was led to becoming a Jungian Analyst. For the video click here.

In the second part, Murray talks about why Jung isn’t more honoured in Zurich, his training in Zurich at the time, his analysts and teachers, including Marie-Louise von Franz, James Hillman, Barbara Hannah, Yolanda and Mario Jacobi, Adolf Guggenbuhl-Craig and others; then moving to Houston and starting a family and his work writing and founding the publishing house Chiron. For the video click here.

In the third part, Murray talks about editing and writing, the thread of individuation through his work, and spirituality, Buddhism and dreams. He also talks about new writing projects, a play, his collected works, his time in the IAAP, the Router Programme, the Analytical Psychology community and the painful split in the Zurich trainings. For the video click here.

In the final, brief part of the interview Murray talks about the future of the work, the trainings in Zurich, moving back to Zurich, and his work and life in Zurich now, as well as what he might be remembered for. For the video click here

Murray Stein, PhD is a training analyst at the International School for Analytical Psychology in Zurich, Switzerland. His publications include The Principle of Individuation, Jung’s Map of the Soul, and The Edinburgh International Encyclopaedia of Psychoanalysis (Editor of the Jungian sections, with Ross Skelton as General Editor). He lectures internationally on topics related to Analytical Psychology and its applications in the contemporary world. Dr. Stein is a graduate of Yale University (B.A. and M.Div.), the University of Chicago (Ph.D., in Religion and Psychological Studies), and the C.G. Jung Institut-Zurich. He is a founding member of the Inter-Regional Society of Jungian Analysts and Chicago Society of Jungian Analysts. He has been the president of the International Association for Analytical Psychology (2001-4), and is presently a member of the Swiss Society for Analytical Psychology and President of the International School of Analytical Psychology, Zurich.


Links: Murray Stein’s Website | Murray Stein’s recorded lectures at the C. G. Jung Institute of Chicago | Journal of Analytical Psychology YouTube channel | Subscribe to the JAP

Healing Cinema: Rear Window


In this episode, Jungian Analysts Judith Cooper and Daniel Ross discuss Alfred Hitchcock’s 1954 film Rear Window (Wikipedia). They touch on:

  • Creative vision
  • Post WWII social change
  • Anima/Animus
  • Puer & Senex
  • Projection
  • Fear of intimacy & marriage
  • Voyeurism

  • Masculine and feminine
  • Coniunctio
  • Patriarchal gaze
  • The Tale of Blue Beard (Wikipedia)
  • The Shadow
  • The Trickster

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Jung, von Franz & Alchemy: Dr. Alfred Ribi in conversation with Stefano Carpani (Video)

Dr. Alfred Ribi and Stefano Carpani met in Erlenbach (Zurich) in February 2017. This is a 45 minutes conversation on C.G. Jung, M.L. Von Franz, Alchemy and the relevance of Analytical Psychology today.

Dr. Alfred Ribi (1931) is a Swiss Psychiatrist and Psychotherapist. In 1963, he began analysis with Marie-Louise von Franz and worked closely with her ever since. Stefano Carpani M.A. M.Phil. (1978), is an Italian Psychoanalyst-in-Training (diploma candidate) at the C.G. Jung Institute Zurich and a PhD Researcher at the Centre for Psychoanalytical Studies, University of Essex (UK).

Stefano’s YouTube Channel | Stefano’s Website

The Adventure of Being Human: Beyond the Myth of Biological Salvation with Polly Young-Eisendrath


This episode is the opening lecture of a weekend given by Polly Young-Eisendrath. It contains a 1-hour lecture followed by an hour of Q&A. From the seminar description:

We all sense a connection with the source that underlies our existence, whether or not we recognize it as such and we all wish to identify with something larger than ourselves. Some feel this as a spiritual yearning, while others wish for fame or celebrity or the knowledge of a larger truth. The spiritual isolation and materialism (both economic and philosophical) of our times make it difficult to find trustworthy methods from institutional religions, non-traditional approaches, psychology, or philosophy for seeking knowledge of this source. However, our desire to help others (and ourselves) and our willingness to love deeply and authentically can offer the common ground through which we can find this knowledge, but it requires a dedicated understanding of our own suffering and its transformation.

Instead of seeking such insight into our subjective lives, we Americans embrace popular myths of biological salvation and pharmaceutical soothing. It?s not just that we seek instant solutions to complex problems, rather we have lost our taste for the adventure of human life, replacing it with ideals of economic and biological ?security? and hopes for absolute control of our diet and health.

This program offers a critique of this contemporary myth of biological salvation and presents accounts from psychoanalysis (Jungian and otherwise) and Buddhism of how embracing our limitations can open the path to transformation and lasting contentment.

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Animating Female Archetypes & Telling Women’s Stories: Interview with Elizabeth Lesser


Best-selling author Elizabeth Lesser sat down with us to discuss her latest book, Cassandra Speaks: When Women are the Storytellers, the Human Story Changes. Elizabeth is the co-founder of the Omega Institute in Rhinebeck, NY. In the interview, Lesser talks about new models of power with host Patricia Martin and explains why feminine archetypes and female myths are so resonant today. Offering bright insights and deep wisdom, Lesser touches on several of Jung’s theories, including anima and animus, and shares a gem-like memory of Jungian analyst Marion Woodman, who led workshops at the Omega Center during its early years. Having Elizabeth Lesser on Jungianthology was profoundly inspiring; and we invite you to listen for yourself. In this interview they touch on:

The Omega Institute
The Omega Women’s Leadership Center
Archetypes
Power and abuse of power
Masculine theories of leadership
Greek mythology as written by men
The myth of Cassandra
Marion Woodman
Anima/Animus
Simone Biles
How gender roles are changing
Feminist theories and practices of power
How “feminine-ist” power is necessary to face contemporary problems

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August Cwik | “The Technologically-Mediated Self: Reflections on the Container and Field of Telecommunications” in the Journal of Analytical Psychology

Chicago Society of Jungian Analysts member August Cwik has published “The technologically-mediated self: reflections on the container and field of telecommunications” in the Journal of Analytical Psychology. Abstract:

This paper contains reflections on the use of the imagination in technologically-mediated therapy and analysis. As part of the individuation process the psyche is seen as needing to adapt to new technological ways of communicating. The notion of a technologically-mediated self is posited describing a self which can only be apprehended through, and by, the use of telecommunications. This self is seen as identical to the in-person self, a subset, or superset of it. There is a revisioning of our notions of the container and the field in this work performed through technological-mediation. The need to engage the imagination in approaching this kind of work is emphasized in order to create an imaginal play-space in which the body will be deeply affected. Some thoughts on how the process of individuation might look through such analytic work is presented.

Viewing the full article requires a subscription to the Journal of Analytical Psychology or a one-time payment for access to the article.

Dr. Cwik is a clinical psychologist, hypnotherapist and senior diplomate Jungian Analyst in private practice in the Chicago area. After studying Chemistry as an undergraduate, he entered military service and then changed his career path to psychology. After studying with Rosiland Cartwright in the Dream and Sleep Lab at the University of Illinois, Chicago Circle, he was in the first class at the Illinois School of Professional Psychology. He interned at the University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry where he trained in hypnotherapy and psychoanalytic psychotherapy and returned to Chicago to begin private practice. He is on the teaching faculty of the Chicago Institute and the Florida and Minnesota Seminars for the Interregional Society of Jungian Analysts. He is an Assistant Editor for the Journal of Analytical Psychology. He is former: Co-Director of Training of the Analyst Training Program in Clinical Supervision and Curriculum and Co-Director of Clinical Training Program in Analytical Psychotherapy at the C.G. Jung Institute of Chicago, and Senior Adjunct Faculty at the Illinois School of Professional Psychology. He provides videoconferencing supervision and analysis.  He has published on analytic structure, supervision, alchemical imagery, active imagination, dreams, and numerous reviews.

Links: August Cwik on Jungianthology | August Cwik’s lectures at the C. G. Jung Institute of Chicago

Murray Stein | Midway on our life’s journey…: On Psychological Transformation at Midlife (Essay)

The midlife period in most advanced countries worldwide today the average life expectancy for males extends to their mid- to late seventies and for women to their early to mid-eighties. Of course, this varies from place to place and depends very much on socio-economic factors that fluctuate broadly with world historical events such as revolutions, wars, economic depressions, and so forth. But on the whole and in average circumstances, the midway point of life for both sexes falls in the period between thirty-five and forty-five years of age. Why is this noteworthy, especially for psychotherapists?

Often midlife is a profoundly transformational period in personal identity for both women and men. Sometimes this takes the form of the famous “crisis,” but often it is not something quite so dramatic. I have come to think of it instead as a potential second birth of adult identity, the first having taken place between late adolescence and the thirtieth year. And birth is sometimes traumatic, and so one speaks of it as a “crisis” with justification. But even if not a fullblown crisis, it may signal a subtle transition in a person’s sense of self and identity.

About the timing of this transformation process, one cannot be quite so precisely mathematical. Some people seem to experience this on the early end of the midlife period, and many others on the other end and in their late forties. The timing is quite variable and depends on a number of factors coalescing that bring it to a point. What happened earlier in the person’s line of development out of childhood through adolescence and into adulthood is of importance in this. Generally speaking, the storms of life catch people by surprise, and the midlife tumult is no exception even if people are somewhat prepared to expect something big nowadays due to the extensive press coverage the midlife crisis has received in the decades of the late twentieth century.

It is also the case that some people do not undergo a midlife transformation at any time, any more than that everyone achieves a solid and meaningful adult identity. This is not a given. Some people show serious developmental arrest in early childhood attitudes or in adolescence, for example, and for such people there is no midlife transformation to speak of, but rather a continuous and prolonged identity as a partially adult person with striking childish or adolescent features remaining in place to the end of their lives. For these people, aging is real only in a physical sense but not psychologically, and even at the physical level it can staved off quite well and for a lengthy period of time given enough money for cosmetic surgery and other forms of anti-aging treatment. For people who make the transitions from childhood into adulthood successfully and more or less fully, however, aging is a psychological as well as a physical process. Psychologically, as one gets older one also becomes more complex and – dare we say it? – more mature and perhaps even attains to a level of wisdom in later years. Most importantly, one achieves a defined identity that extends beyond the early one of late adolescence and early adulthood. This later form of adult identity I call the personality’s “imago.” It takes form as the result of one or more transformations in and around the midlife period.

The Two Halves of Life – Achievement of Conventionality, Development of Individuality

The midlife phase of the lifelong psychological developmental process, which in Jungian circles we refer to as individuation, marks the turning point from the first half of life into the second. The lifespan as a whole can be divided into two more or less equal (in duration) parts, a first and a second half. This is an important image to keep in mind when considering the meaning of the midlife transition. Each half of life has its own proper projects, tasks, and challenges, and they are different. The tasks of the first half have to do with growing up physically and mentally and with attaining the social stature of an adult member of one’s community, willing and able to take responsibility for the tasks of adulthood – working, raising a family, paying taxes, preparing to take care of one’s aging parents and able to care for one’s growing children, and so forth. From the psychological perspective, this calls for personal (i.e., ego) development out of a primal state of attachment to mother and parentlike caretakers and and for growing out of a sense of dependency on them in order to gain a felt degree of independence, autonomous functioning, and the ability to contribute to others rather than only to absorb and consume. This has profound moral as well as psychological features.

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Healing Cinema: Gaslight

This episode is the first in a new series called Healing Cinema. Judith Cooper, PsyD, and Daniel Ross, PMHNP, members of the Chicago Society of Jungian Analysts, discuss films from an Jungian point of view. These informal discussions will be released in parallel with our other episodes (lectures from our archives and interviews by Patricia Martin) and will not be on any particular schedule.

In this episode, Judith and Dan discuss the 1944 film Gaslight (Wikipedia). They mention the fairy tale “Fitcher’s Bird”, so if you want to learn more about that, you can read about it on Wikipedia. They also touch on the following:

  • Alchemy
  • Animus/Anima
  • Beebe, John
  • Blackbeard fairytale
  • Hillman, James
  • Imposter Syndrome
  • Initiation
  • Kalsched, Donald
  • Numinous
  • Puella
  • Senex
  • Splendor Solis
  • Telos
  • Transcendent Function
  • Trauma
  • Trickster

Judith Cooper, PsyD is a clinical psychologist and diplomate Jungian Analyst in private practice in Chicago. She is a graduate and member of the C. G. Jung Institute of Chicago. She was adjunct faculty at the Illinois School of Professional Psychology (1999-2000), teaching projective testing. She was clinical supervisor (1991-2002) and director of training (1998-2002) of an APA-accredited psychology internship program at a community mental health center in northwest Indiana. She has taught in the Analyst Training Program and lectured on the anima/animus, and the clinical use of film.

Daniel Ross, RN, PMHNP, MSN, MBA has been a nurse for 40 years and in hospice for over 30.  As a Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner and Jungian Analyst, he brings a medical, psychiatric, and analytical perspective to the field of end-of-life care.  He first completed the two-year Clinical Training Program (now the JPP/JSP) at the C. G. Jung Institute of Chicago then went on to complete the Analyst Training Program.  He is in private practice in the northwest suburbs working with adults seeking psychotherapy and continues to see hospice and palliative care patients at the end of life.  He is Co-Director of the Jungian Psychotherapy Program and Jungian Studies Program at the C. G. Jung Institute of Chicago.

Thank you to everyone who has shared a little about themselves. If you’d like us to know who you are, click this link, and I’ll read your submission on the podcast!

You can support this free podcast by making a donation, becoming a member of the Institute, or making a purchase in our online store. Your support enables us to provide free and low-cost educational resources to all.

Links
Judith Cooper’s page on the C. G. Jung Institute of Chicago Website
Daniel Ross’s page on the C. G. Jung Institute of Chicago Website


This podcast is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. You may share it, but please do not change it, sell it, or transcribe it.
Executive Producer: Ben Law
Host: Patricia Martin
Contributors: Judith Cooper & Daniel Ross
Music: Michael Chapman


Thank you to our 2020 donors who gave at the Contributing Member level and above: Barbara Annan, Usha and Ashok Bedi, Jackie Cabe Bryan, Eric Cooper and Judith Cooper, Kevin Davis, George J. Didier, Mary Dougherty, James Fidelibus, John Korolewski, Marty Manning, Dyane Sherwood, Deborah P. Stutsman, Debra Tobin, Alexander Wayne and Lynne Copp, Gerald Weiner, Karen West and James Taylor, and Ellen Young. If you would like to support this podcast, click here to join our community of supporters.

The King Within: A Study in Masculine Psychology

with Robert Moore, PhD

This episode is the first session of the series The King Within: A Study in Masculine Psychology, a classic seminar in his series on the four major archetypes of masculine psychology as he understood them: King, Warrior, Magician, Lover. From the seminar description:

Of the four male archetypes described by Robert Moore—King, Warrior, Magician and Lover—the King is the central archetype in the mature masculine psyche. Without dis-identification from this archetype—and without a dynamic connection to it—a man will be immobilized by grandiosity, lost in depression, and bereft of a sense of meaning, just order, and connection with the creative springs of the psyche. The course is divided into the following four topics:

• The Sacred King in Myth, Folklore and Religion
• The Role of the King in Masculine Selfhood
• Psychopathology and the King
• Healing the King: Resources from Analysis, Ritual and Human Spirituality

It was recorded in 1989.

Robert Moore, PhD was Distinguished Service Professor of Psychology, Psychoanalysis and Spirituality in the Graduate Center of the Chicago Theological Seminary where he was the Founding Director of the new Institute for Advanced Studies in Spirituality and Wellness. An internationally recognized psychoanalyst and consultant in private practice in Chicago, he served as a Training Analyst at the C.G. Jung Institute of Chicago and was Director of Research for the Institute for Integrative Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy and the Chicago Center for Integrative Psychotherapy. Author and editor of numerous books in psychology and spirituality, he lectured internationally on his formulation of a neo-Jungian  psychoanalysis and integrative psychotherapy.  His publications include THE ARCHETYPE OF INITIATION: Sacred Space, Ritual Process and Personal TransformationTHE MAGICIAN AND THE ANALYST: The Archetype of the Magus in Occult Spirituality and Jungian Psychology; and FACING THE DRAGON: Confronting Personal and Spiritual Grandiosity.

Thank you to everyone who has shared a little about themselves. If you’d like us to know who you are, click this link, and I’ll read your submission on the podcast! No need to share any identifying information. This information will not be used for any other purpose.

You can support this free podcast by making a donation, becoming a member of the Institute, or making a purchase in our online store. Your support enables us to provide free and low-cost educational resources to all.

We’re currently running our annual Summer Sale! Get 20% off everything in our online store through July 14. Use the coupon code SUMMER on the CART PAGE before proceeding to checkout.

Links
The King Within: A Study in Masculine Psychology
The King, Warrior, Magician, Lover Compilation
All of Robert Moore’s Seminars


This podcast is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. You may share it, but please do not change it, sell it, or transcribe it.
Executive Producer: Ben Law
Host: Patricia Martin
Music: Michael Chapman


Thank you to our 2020 donors who gave at the Contributing Member level and above: Barbara Annan, Usha and Ashok Bedi, Jackie Cabe Bryan, Eric Cooper and Judith Cooper, Kevin Davis, George J. Didier, Mary Dougherty, James Fidelibus, John Korolewski, Marty Manning, Dyane Sherwood, Deborah P. Stutsman, Debra Tobin, Alexander Wayne and Lynne Copp, Gerald Weiner, Karen West and James Taylor, and Ellen Young. If you would like to support this podcast, click here to join our community of supporters.

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About Jungianthology

The Jungianthology Podcast offers free lectures from our archives and interviews with Jungian analysts and presenters at Institute programs.

The Jungianthology Blog shares essays, articles, video, audio, and other resources by members of the Chicago Society of Jungian Analysts and other groups that support the education and development of our community.

The views and opinions expressed in the podcast and blog posts are those of the respected speakers or authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the C. G. Jung Institute of Chicago.